Michel Bauwens et Vasilis Kostakis publient sur le site Evonomics un article dans lequel ils décrivent « un nouveau système post-capitaliste de production de la valeur ». Ils opposent le capitalisme extractif à la « production de communs entre pairs » et décrivent les évolutions institutionnelles qui permettraient à ce nouveau mode de se développer (systèmes hétérarchiques, coalitions entreprenariales, associations for-benefit).
Extractive entrepreneurs seek to maximize their profits, and generally do not sufficiently re-invest in the maintenance of the productive communities. Like Facebook, they do not share any profits with the co-creating communities on which they depend for their value creation and realization. Like Uber and AirBnB, they tax exchanges but do not contribute to the creation of transport or hospitality infrastructures.
Generative entrepreneurs do create added value around these communities. Seed-forms of commons-oriented entrepreneurial coalitions create added value on top of the commons that they co-produce and upon which they are co-dependent. In the best of cases, the community of entrepreneurs often coincides with the productive community. The contributors build their own vehicles in order to create livelihoods while producing the commons. They re-invest the surplus in their own well-being and the overall commons system they are co-producing.